Fentanil, nov opij za ljudstvo

Aktualno-politična novica
21. 11. 2022 - 8.05

Raziskovalna skupina Univerze v Houstonu poroča o visoki učinkovitosti cepiva proti sintetičnemu opioidu fentanilu pri podganah. Izsledke študije, v kateri so ugotavljali, ali cepivo preprečuje predoziranje s fentanilom, so objavili v reviji Pharmaceutics. 

Fentanil in njegovi analogi se uradno uporabljajo kot protibolečinsko zdravilo in anestetik, zaradi svojih učinkov, podobnih heroinu, pa se zlorabljajo kot rekreacijska droga. Zaradi prevelikega odmerka opioidov, kot so fentanil, heroin in morfij, vsak dan po svetu umre več kot 150 ljudi. Med letoma 2015 in 2019 pa je zaradi predoziranja umrlo več kot 1,25 milijona mlajših ljudi v Združenih državah Amerike. 

Dolgotrajna uporaba tovrstnih substanc vodi v razvoj motnje uporabe opioidov, kar pomeni povečano toleranco ter fizično in psihično odvisnost. Pri kroničnih uživalkah in uživalcih se tako poveča možnost smrtnega predoziranja, ki je najvišja prav pri fentanilu. Ta je po svojem delovanju 50-krat močnejši od heroina in 100-krat močnejši od morfija, za povprečnega odraslega človeka pa je lahko smrten že od dva- do trimiligramski odmerek. Po zadnjih podatkih ameriškega Urada za boj proti drogam je kar 42 odstotkov tablet na črnem trgu, katerih glavna učinkovina je fentanil, vsebovalo več kot dva miligrama te snovi. 

zmanjšanje stranskih učinkov opioidov
 / 19. 1. 2017

Zlorabo opioidov zdravijo z nadomestnim zdravljenjem z opioidi, najpogosteje metadonom, pri zastrupitvah z visokimi odmerki fentanila pa se uporablja tudi protisredstvo nalokson. V nasprotju z omenjenim klasičnim nadomestnim zdravljenjem pa cepljenje, potencialna alternativna terapija, zahteva manj odmerkov in ima tudi manj stranskih učinkov oziroma so ti blažji. V raziskavi so uporabili cepivo, ki so ga prej preizkusili v študiji odziva pri miših; pri teh so po cepljenju izmerili visoke količine protiteles, usmerjenih proti fentanilu. V tej študiji so želeli preveriti, ali protitelesa z vezavo onemogočajo prehod fentanila v možgane in posledično preprečujejo nastanek akutne depresije dihanja ob predoziranju, ki je eden glavnih povzročiteljev smrti uživalcev in uživalk opioidov.

Da bi preverili nevtralizacijske učinke protiteles, so najprej izmerili protibolečinski učinek fentanila. Podganam so osem tednov po cepljenju dali odmerek fentanila in izvedli dva različna testa odziva na bolečino. Pri obeh so merili odzive na izpostavljenost visokim temperaturam, ki so jo podgane zaznale z bolečinskimi receptorji na repu. Protibolečinski učinek so predstavili kot delež maksimalnega možnega učinka in je pri necepljenih znašal dobrih 75 odstotkov, pri cepljenih pa ga skoraj niso zaznali. 

Da bi preverili, ali so protitelesa nase vezala fentanil in preprečila njegov vstop v možgane, so pri istih podganah po 20 tednih izmerili še njegovo koncentracijo v možganih. Količina fentanila je bila v možganih necepljenih podgan več kot desetkrat višja kot pri cepljenih; pri nekaterih cepljenih podganah ga sploh niso zaznali.

V nadaljevanju jih je zanimalo, ali cepivo prepreči nastanek akutne depresije dihanja. Pri cepljenih in necepljenih podganah so z instrumentom, nameščenim zunaj telesa – pulznim oksimetrom, merili nasičenost krvi s kisikom in srčni utrip. Fentanil je pri necepljenih samcih zmanjšal nasičenost s kisikom pod 70 odstotkov, prav tako se je znižal njihov srčni utrip. Pri cepljenih je znašal okoli 400 utripov na minuto, kar je pri podganah normalni srčni utrip, pri necepljenih pa se je znižal tudi na 230 utripov na minuto, kar že predstavlja visoko tveganje za srčni zastoj. 

Učinkovitost cepiva so primerjali tudi med spoloma. Pri samcih so ob enakovrednem odmerku izmerili večjo koncentracijo protiteles, prav tako so pri cepljenih samcih, ki so kasneje zaužili fentanil, v možganih izmerili manjšo koncentracijo, kar pomeni, da ga je manj prešlo iz krvi v možgane. Višjo učinkovitost cepiva pri samcih so pripisali fiziološkim razlikam v koncentracijah hormonov.

Raziskovalke in raziskovalci so s študijo potrdili, da je njihovo cepivo zmanjšalo negativne učinke fentanila pri podganah. Zaradi že preizkušene varnosti sestavin cepiva in preproste sestave si raziskovalna skupina obeta čimprejšnje klinične študije na ljudeh, cepivo pa je tudi patentno zaščitila.

Vir slike: https://www.istockphoto.com/illustrations/opium-poppy

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- Around 1872, with 98% of the population between ages 2 and 50 vaccinated against smallpox, England experienced its worst ever smallpox outbreak, with 45,000 deaths. During the same period in Germany, with a vaccination rate of 96%, there were over 125,000 deaths from smallpox. (The Hadwen Documents)

- In Germany, compulsory mass vaccination against diphtheria commenced in 1940. By 1945, diphtheria cases were

- In Germany, compulsory mass vaccination against diphtheria commenced in 1940. By 1945, diphtheria cases were up from 40,000 to 250,000. (Don`t Get Stuck, Hannah Allen)

- In the USA in 1960, two virologists discovered that both polio vaccines were contaminated with the SV 40 virus, which causes cancer in animals, as well as changes in human cell tissue cultures. Millions of children had received these vaccines. (Med Jnl of Australia 17/3/1973 p555)

- In 1967, Ghana was declared measles free by the World Health Organisation after 96% of its population was vaccinated. In 1972, Ghana experienced one of its worst measles outbreaks with its highest ever mortality rate. (Dr H Albonico, MMR Vaccine Campaign in Switzerland, March 1990)

- In the UK, between 1970 and 1990, over 200,000 cases of whooping cough occurred in fully vaccinated children. (Community Disease Surveillance Centre, UK)

- In the 1970`s a tuberculosis vaccine trial in India involving 260,000 people revealed that more cases of TB occurred in the vaccinated than the unvaccinated. (The Lancet 12/1/80 p73)

- In 1977, Dr Jonas Salk, who developed the first polio vaccine, testified along with other scientists that mass inoculation against polio was the cause of most polio cases throughout the USA since 1961. (Science 4/4/77 "Abstracts")

- In 1978, a survey of 30 States in the US revealed that more than half of the children who contracted measles had been adequately vaccinated. (The People`s Doctor, Dr R Mendelsohn)

- In 1979, Sweden abandoned the whooping cough vaccine due to its ineffectiveness. Out of 5,140 cases in 1978, it was found that 84% had been vaccinated three times! (BMJ 283:696-697, 1981)

-The February 1981 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association found that 90% of obstetricians and 66% of pediatricians refused to take the rubella vaccine.

- In the USA, the cost of a single DPT shot had risen from 11 cents in 1982 to $11.40 in 1987. The manufacturers of the vaccine were putting aside $8 per shot to cover legal costs and damages they were paying out to parents of brain damaged children and children who died after vaccination. (The Vine, Issue 7, January 1994, Nambour, Qld)

- In Oman between 1988 and 1989, a polio outbreak occurred amongst thousands of fully vaccinated children. The region with the highest attack rate had the highest vaccine coverage. The region with the lowest attack rate had the lowest vaccine coverage. (The Lancet, 21/9/91)

- In 1990, a UK survey involving 598 doctors revealed that over 50% of them refused to have the Hepatitis B vaccine despite belonging to the high risk group urged to be vaccinated. (British Med Jnl, 27/1/1990)

- In the USA in 1960, two virologists discovered that both polio vaccines were contaminated with the SV 40 virus, which causes cancer in animals, as well as changes in human cell tissue cultures. Millions of children had received these vaccines. (Med Jnl of Australia 17/3/1973 p555)

- In 1967, Ghana was declared measles free by the World Health Organisation after 96% of its population was vaccinated. In 1972, Ghana experienced one of its worst measles outbreaks with its highest ever mortality rate. (Dr H Albonico, MMR Vaccine Campaign in Switzerland, March 1990)

- In the UK, between 1970 and 1990, over 200,000 cases of whooping cough occurred in fully vaccinated children. (Community Disease Surveillance Centre, UK)

- In the 1970`s a tuberculosis vaccine trial in India involving 260,000 people revealed that more cases of TB occurred in the vaccinated than the unvaccinated. (The Lancet 12/1/80 p73)

- In 1977, Dr Jonas Salk, who developed the first polio vaccine, testified along with other scientists that mass inoculation against polio was the cause of most polio cases throughout the USA since 1961. (Science 4/4/77 "Abstracts")

- In 1978, a survey of 30 States in the US revealed that more than half of the children who contracted measles had been adequately vaccinated. (The People`s Doctor, Dr R Mendelsohn)

- In 1979, Sweden abandoned the whooping cough vaccine due to its ineffectiveness. Out of 5,140 cases in 1978, it was found that 84% had been vaccinated three times! (BMJ 283:696-697, 1981)

-The February 1981 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association found that 90% of obstetricians and 66% of pediatricians refused to take the rubella vaccine.

- In the USA, the cost of a single DPT shot had risen from 11 cents in 1982 to $11.40 in 1987. The manufacturers of the vaccine were putting aside $8 per shot to cover legal costs and damages they were paying out to parents of brain damaged children and children who died after vaccination. (The Vine, Issue 7, January 1994, Nambour, Qld)

- In Oman between 1988 and 1989, a polio outbreak occurred amongst thousands of fully vaccinated children. The region with the highest attack rate had the highest vaccine coverage. The region with the lowest attack rate had the lowest vaccine coverage. (The Lancet, 21/9/91)

- In 1990, a UK survey involving 598 doctors revealed that over 50% of them refused to have the Hepatitis B vaccine despite belonging to the high risk group urged to be vaccinated. (British Med Jnl, 27/1/1990)

- In the November 1990 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, an article on measles stated: "Although more than 95% of school-aged children in the US are vaccinated against measles, large measles outbreaks continue to occur in schools and most cases in this setting occur among previously vaccinated children." (JAMA, 21/11/90)

- In the USA, from July 1990 to November 1993, the US Food and Drug Administration counted a total of 54,072 adverse reactions following vaccination. The FDA admitted that this number represented only 10% of the real total, because most doctors were refusing to report vaccine injuries. In other words, adverse reactions for this period exceeded half a million! (National Vaccine Information Centre, March 2, 1994)

- In the New England Journal of Medicine, July 1994 issue, a study found that over 80% of children under 5 years of age who had contracted whooping cough, had been fully vaccinated.

- On November 2nd, 2000, the Association of American Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS) announced that its members voted at their 57th annual meeting in St Louis to pass a resolution calling for an end to mandatory childhood vaccines. The resolution passed without a single "no" vote. (Report by Michael Devitt)

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The Association of American Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS) is a politically conservative non-profit association that promotes conspiracy theories and medical misinformation, such as HIV/AIDS denialism, the abortion-breast cancer hypothesis, and vaccine and autism connections. The association was founded in 1943 to oppose a government attempt to nationalize health care. The group has included notable members, including American Republican politicians Ron Paul, Rand Paul and Tom Price.The Association of American Physicians and Surgeons (AAPS) is a politically conservative non-profit association that promotes conspiracy theories and medical misinformation, such as HIV/AIDS denialism, the abortion-breast cancer hypothesis, and vaccine and autism connections. The association was founded in 1943 to oppose a government attempt to nationalize health care. The group has included notable members, including American Republican politicians Ron Paul, Rand Paul and Tom Price.
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