Javno pismo ob sodbi vrhovnega sodišča glede nezakonitosti postopkov slovenske policije na meji

Aktualno-politična novica
Anonymous
30. 8. 2021 - 18.00

Javno pismo: Vrhovno sodišče potrdilo nezakonitost policijskega postopka in državo spomnilo na načelo nevračanja, po katerem se posameznika ne sme vrniti v drugo državo, ne da bi državni organi presodili, ali je ta druga država zanj varna

Izorčiti: Aleš Hojs (Minister za notranje zadeve RS), Ylva Johansson (Evropska komisarka za notranje zadeve) , Juan Fernando Lopez Aguilar (predsednik Odbora za državljanske svoboščine, pravosodje in notranje zadeve v EP (LIBE) in Peter Svetina (Varuh človekovih pravic RS)

Na seji 9. aprila letos je vrhovno sodišče v primeru osebe A. M. razsodilo, da je slovenska policija avgusta 2019 kršila načelo nevračanja in prepoved kolektivnih izgonov ter onemogočila dostop do pravice do mednarodne zaščite. Dve leti kasneje Republika Slovenija vztraja pri nezakoniti praksi vračanja oseb v roke hrvaškim organom in jih s tem izpostavlja nečloveškemu ravnanju, celo mučenju s prisilnim slačenjem, bičanjem, pretepanjem in spolnim nasiljem. Štiri mesece po odločitvi vrhovnega sodišča, ki je v konkretni zadevi v celoti zavrnilo pritožbo Ministrstva za notranje zadeve, Slovenija še vedno ne želi v dobri veri izpolniti svojih pravnih obveznosti in v skladu z zakonom in sodbo odpraviti posega v človekove pravice. Skladno s sodbo bi morala tožniku omogočiti vstop v Slovenijo in mu zagotoviti možnost, da zaprosi za mednarodno zaščito, saj je to edini način, da se popravi poseg v njegove temeljne pravice. V zadevi gre tako za še eno v nizu dejanj izvršilne veje oblasti, ki vztrajno rušijo temelje pravne države. 

Zaradi ravnanja slovenske policije in vztrajnega sprenevedanja državnih organov, ki niti po odločitvi vrhovnega sodišča ne želijo priznati, da je njihova praksa »reševanja obmejne problematike« nezakonita in da povzroča človeške žrtve, je tožnik dve leti po sprožitvi postopka pred sodiščem še vedno ujet v Bosni in Hercegovini, kjer trpi rasno diskriminacijo, pomanjkljivo zdravstveno in drugo oskrbo, duševne stiske in fizično nasilje, hkrati pa je brez vsakršne možnosti, da bi pridobil mednarodno zaščito in dostojno zaživel v varnem okolju. 

"Čeprav je Vrhovno sodišče RS s svojo sodbo postavilo pravno piko na i ugotovitve, da so slovenski državni organi kršili pravico mojega klienta do prepovedi nevračanja in pravico do dostopa do azilnega postopka ter kršili pravico do individualne obravnave (pri čemer so kršitve pravic moje stranke del sistemskega in masovnega kršenja pravic beguncev), to žal istih organov te države ni spravilo k iskanju čimprejšnjega in s pravom čim bolj skladnega načina izvršitve navedene sodbe, pač pa, ravno nasprotno, k iskanju vsakršne, tudi minimalne, tudi protipravne možnosti, da se zadevna sodba ne izvrši. Zato je moj klient, kljub odločitvi Vrhovnega sodišča RS v njegovo korist, še vedno ujet v BiH, kjer so mu še naprej kršene temeljne človekove pravice. Za izvršilno vejo oblasti te države je tako odločitev Vrhovnega sodišča očitno zgolj motnja pri sistemskem kršenju človekovih pravic in svoboščin, ki jo je treba čim bolj učinkovito nevtralizirati."
   - Dino Bauk, odvetnik

V enako pomanjkljivih postopkih policija vztrajno krši pravico do izjave v postopku, saj ne vključuje tolmačev ali pa je tolmačenje pomanjkljivo. Policija ljudem govori, da »v Sloveniji ni azila«, in takoj je jasno, da bo oseba, ki se znajde v policijskem postopku zaradi neregularnega prehoda meje, vrnjena v roke hrvaškim organom, ki se bodo nad njo najverjetneje fizično izživljali, jo ustrahovali, zažigali njene stvari in jo izgnali čez zeleno mejo v Bosno. Na ta način je bilo od leta 2018 po meddržavnem sporazumu o izročitvah iz Slovenije na Hrvaško vrnjenih več kot 27.000 ljudi. 

V civilni iniciativi Infokolpa skupaj z drugimi članicami mednarodne mreže Border Violence Monitoring Network že vrsto let opozarjamo na nezakonitost in nevarnost te sistematične prakse omejevanja dostopa do mednarodne zaščite in izročitev na Hrvaško. Na nezakonitost prakse tako imenovanih push-backov je nedavno opozoril tudi posebni poročevalec Združenih narodov za človekove pravice migrantov. Ta je države pozval, naj zagotovijo spoštovanje pravic migrantov, naj končajo push-backe ter naj v celoti spoštujejo prepoved kolektivnega izgona in načelo nevračanja. 

 

O nasilju hrvaške policije že več let konsistentno poročajo Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, Zdravniki brez meja, Danish Refugee Council in nenazadnje številne lokalne in regionalne humanitarne in druge organizacije. Hrvaško je leta 2020 obiskal tudi Evropski odbor za preprečevanje mučenja in nečloveškega ali ponižujočega ravnanja ali kaznovanja. Pozivi k dokončni odpravi te kriminalne in sramotne prakse se vrstijo z vseh strani, tudi iz Mednarodne organizacije za migracije in Združenih narodov, leta 2021 pa se je zapoznelo končno oglasila tudi Evropska komisija.

 

Slovenski državni organi se ne morejo sklicevati na nevednost, niti ne morejo uspeti z izgovarjanjem na »zlorabo pravice do mednarodne zaščite«, kajti o mednarodni zaščiti se odloča v postopku pred ministrstvom – o tem, kdo je upravičen do nje, ne sme odločati policija. Očitno je, da je slovenskim organom popolnoma jasno, v kakšne razmere vračajo ljudi in kakšni nevarnosti jih izpostavljajo. Sam minister za notranje zadeve Aleš Hojs je junija 2020 za revijo Reporter komentiral, da migrante, citiramo, »naši organi vračajo na Hrvaško ter posledično v centre v BiH in Srbiji«. Konec citata. Vprašanje časa je, kdaj bo Slovenija odgovarjala za te množične kršitve človekovih pravic.  

 

Zato odgovorne – Ministrstvo za notranje zadeve in slovensko policijo – pozivamo, naj ravnajo dobronamerno, naj spoštujejo sodbo svojega najvišjega sodišča, temeljne pravice vseh in mednarodne obveznosti Slovenije in naj: 

prvič – nemudoma poskrbijo, da se tožniku A. M. omogoči vstop v državo in zagotovi možnost zaprositi za mednarodno zaščito;

drugič – nemudoma prenehajo izročati osebe hrvaškim organom, saj tam zanje obstaja resna nevarnost mučenja, nečloveškega ravnanja in verižnega vračanja v nečloveške razmere v Bosni in Hercegovini.

Omenjeni poziv je skromen, saj ne zahteva poprave krivic, storjenih več kot 27.000 ljudem, ki so bili žrtev zločinskega ravnanja slovenske politike in ki jim je bila prizadejana neizmerljiva škoda, v nekaterih primerih tudi smrt. Omenjeni točki zahtevata, da se ta državni zločin konča in da se popravi kršitev pravic osebe, ki je nezakonitost ravnanja policije v svojem primeru dokazala na sodišču.

 

Izjava tožnika A.M.: 

"Ko sem izvedel za uspešen potek sodbe v Sloveniji sem za trenutek spet začel verjeti v pravičnost, sploh ker sodba prihaja iz države, ki je (op. med migranti) na slabem glasu. Glede na vse zaplete po sodbi ter na dolgotrajnost postopkov ponovno dvomim v obstoj pravičnosti. Zaradi dolgotrajnosti postopkov sem izgubil zaupanje (op. v Slovenijo).

 

“Prisiljen sem da vedno znova poskušam priti do Slovenije peš, a vsakič ko prečkam mejo (op. med BiH in Hrvaško) me zaustavi hrvaška policija, ki me pretepe in zažge stvari, zadnjič so me vrnili (op. v BiH) samo v spodnjicah. Takrat se sprašujem: »Ali sploh obstaja pravičnost na tem svetu?«"
    - A. M.

 

 

 

 

Infokolpa, Border Violence Monitoring Network

 

Povzetek sodbe dostopen na: https://push-forward.org/novica/javno-pismo-ob-sodbi-vrhovnega-sodisca-glede-nezakonitosti-postopkov-slovenske-policije-na

 

 

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An appeal to ensure respect of the rule of law in Slovenia/ A public letter: 

The Supreme Court of Slovenia has found the Slovenian police conduct to be illegal, reminding the state of its obligation to respect the non-refoulement principle - an individual should not be returned to another state without an official assessment if the other state is safe for this individual. Slovenia must enable the plaintiff, an asylum seeker who had been a victim of a chain-push-back, to effectively request asylum in Slovenia. 

Addressed to: Aleš Hojs, Janez Janša, Ylva Johansson, Juan Fernando Lopez Agilar, Janez Svetina

During its session on 9th April 2021, in the case of A. M., the Slovenian Supreme Court ruled  the following: in August 2019 the Slovenian police violated the principle of non-refoulement, the prohibition of collective expulsions and denied the plaintiff access to the right to international protection. 

Two years after the illegal police conduct, the Republic of Slovenia persists in its illegal practices of returning people to Croatian authorities, thereby exposing them to inhuman treatment, even torture by forced undressing, flogging, beatings, and sexual violence. Four months after the decision by the Supreme Court, which rejected the Ministry of the Interior's appeal in its entirety, Slovenia still shows no willingness to fulfill its legal obligations in good faith and eliminate its interference that violates human rights, ensured by the law and the judgment itself. 

The judgment states Slovenia should allow the plaintiff to enter the country and provide him with the opportunity to apply for international protection. It states that this is the only way to remedy in part the violations of the plaintiff's fundamental rights. 

The case is thus another confirmation of the executive branch’s conduct that persistently undermines the foundations of the rule of law, specifically international refugee law and international human rights law.

Such conduct, which is systemic, by the Slovenian police goes hand in hand with the persistent active negligence on behalf of state bodies that despite the Supreme Court's decision choose not to acknowledge their practices of 'solving border issues' are illegal and cause human casualties. Therefore, two years after the trial began the plaintiff remains trapped in Bosnia and Herzegovina, where he is subjected to racial discrimination, lack of health and other care, to continuous mental distress and physical violence, without the possibility to access international protection and begin a dignified life in a safe environment.

"Although the Supreme Court of the Republic of Slovenia ruled in its judgment that the Slovenian state authorities had violated my client's right to non-refoulement and the right to access asylum procedure, as well as the right to individual treatment (violations of my client's rights are part of systemic and mass violations of the rights of refugees), unfortunately, this did not lead the same authorities to seek the earliest and most lawful way to enforce that judgment, but, on the contrary, to seek any, even minimal, even unlawful possibility of not enforcing the judgment in question. My client is therefore, despite the decision of the Slovenian Supreme Court in his favor, still trapped in BiH, where his fundamental human rights continue to be violated. For the executive branch of this country, the decision of the Supreme Court is clearly merely a disturbance in the systemic violations of human rights and freedoms, which must be neutralized as effectively as possible. "

- Dino Bauk, lawyer

In identically unlawful proceedings, the police persistently violate the rights of asylum seekers to present their requests for asylum. Police do not involve interpreters or offer flawed translations. Slovenian police routinely tell people that "there is no asylum in Slovenia", making it clear at the start of the proceedings that they will “return” them to Croatian authorities, who are known to inflict physical violence, use intimidation, burn belongings and force people across the green border to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Thus, under the guise of the so-called bilateral agreement between Slovenia and Croatia, both EU member states, more than 27.000 people have been “returned” to Croatia - and most probably to BiH - in recent years.

Civil initiative Infokolpa and other members of the international Border Violence Monitoring Network have been warning about the illegality and danger of this systematic practice of restricting access to international protection for more than three years. “Returns” of asylum seekers to Croatia by Slovenian police continue despite consistent reports from international and non-governmental organizations that Croatian police’s conduct amounts to torture and inhumane treatment. The UN Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants warned about the illegality of push-back practices and called on countries to ensure respect for the human rights of migrants, including those in irregular situations. He urged an end to pushback practices and demanded full respect of the principle of non-refoulement and a ban on collective expulsions. Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, Doctors Without Borders (MSF), the Danish Refugee Council and, last but not least, many local and regional humanitarian and other organizations, including Infokolpa as part of the Border Violence Monitoring Network, have reported on the violence of the Croatian police consistently over the years. The European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) visited Croatia in 2020. Calls for a permanent cessation of these criminal and shameful practices are coming from all sides: from the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the United Nations, and finally in 2021 - from the European Commission.

Slopavenian state authorities cannot state ignorance nor can they offer excuses that they are addressing 'abuses of the right to international protection'. The right to asylum can be assessed only in a procedure at the ministerial level - the police do not have the authority to judge or decide who is or is not entitled to it. 

Slovenian authorities are fully aware about the situation in Croatia, to which they “return” people and what dangers await them, as both countries praise police bilateral cooperation. In June 2020, the Minister of the Interior Aleš Hojs himself commented for Reporter magazine that “...our authorities are returning (migrants) to Croatia and from there consequently to centers in BiH and Serbia”. 

It is now only a matter of time when Slovenia is forced to face the consequences for these mass violations of human rights.

We therefore call on the Ministry of the Interior and the Slovenian Police to respect the rule of law, to act in good faith and to ensure the fulfilment of the Supreme Court judgment,  fundamental human rights and international law by:

  1. ensuring that the plaintiff is allowed to enter the country and ask for international protection; 

  2. immediately cease “returns” or other extradictions of persons who might be entitled to asylum to Croatian authorities for there exists a serious and credible danger of torture and inhuman treatment and of their “chain push-back” to inhumane conditions in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

What we ask for is modest. We do not wish to, at this point, open the question of a redress for the injustices suffered by more than 27.000 people who are officially documented victims of illegal conduct by Slovenian police following the political decisions by successive Slovenian governments. These individuals, families, women, men and children, have suffered immeasurable damage and some have died. 

Again, we merely call for an end to such state-sanctioned crimes, to uphold the rule of law and respect the Supreme Court’s ruling.

Plaintiff's statements:

"When I found out about the successful course of the verdict in Slovenia, for a moment I began to believe in justice again, especially because the verdict comes from a country that (among migrants) has a bad reputation. Given all the complications following the verdict and the length of the proceedings, I again doubt that justice exists. Due to the length of the proceedings, I lost confidence (in Slovenia)." 

"I am forced to try to get to Slovenia on foot again and again, but every time I cross the border (between BiH and Croatia) I am stopped by the Croatian police, who beat me and burn things, last time they returned me (to BiH) only in underwear. That's when I wonder: is there justice in this world at all?"

- А. М.

 

Infokolpa, Border Violence Monitoring Network

 

 

Summary of the court ruling is available here: https://push-forward.org/novica/javno-pismo-ob-sodbi-vrhovnega-sodisca-glede-nezakonitosti-postopkov-slovenske-policije-na

 

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